Advertising services I Why advertise with Publiboda? I Glossary of Interactive Advertising Terms

Glossary of Interactive Advertising Terms P to S



P3P (Platform for Privacy Preferences Project)

Browser feature that will analyze privacy policies and allow a user to control their privacy needs.

Packet sniffer

A program used to monitor and record activity and to detect problems with Web transactions on a network.


A document having a specific URL and comprised of a set of associated files. A page may contain text, images, and other online elements. It may be static or dynamically generated. It may be made up of multiple frames or screens, but should contain a designated primary object which, when loaded, is counted as the entire page.

Page display

When a page is successfully displayed on the user's computer screen.

Page impression

A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user.

Page request

The opportunity for an HTML document to appear on a browser window as a direct result of a user's interaction with a website.

Page view

When the page is actually seen by the user. Note: this is not measurable today; the best approximation today is provided by page displays.


A group of letters and/or numbers which allow a user access to a secured website.

Pay per Click

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many users clicked on an online ad or email message. See CPC.

Pay per Impression

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were served their ads. See CPM.

Pay per Lead

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay for each "sales lead" generated. For example, an advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form. See CPL.

Pay per Sale

An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad. See CPS.

PDF (Portable Document Format)

A digital format developed by Adobe used primarily for distributing digital text files. Files with a “pdf” extension can be viewed and printed consistently by anyone, regardless of platform.

Peer to Peer (P2P)

The transmission of a file from one individual to another, typically through an intermediary. Individuals sharing files via P2P do not necessarily know one another, rather applications like BitTorrent manage file transmissions from those who have part or all of the file to those who want it.

Performance pricing model

An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS, CPT.

Permission marketing

When an individual has given a company permission to market its products and services to the individual. See opt in.

Persistent cookie

Cookies that remain a client hard drive until they expire (as determined by the website that set them) or are deleted by the end user.

PII (Personally Identifiable Information)

Refers to information such as an individual’s name, mailing address, phone number or email address.

PIN (Personal Identification Number)

A group of numbers which allow a unique user access to a secured website and/or a secure area of a website. See password.


Apicture element (single illuminated dot) on a computer monitor. The metric used to indicate the size of Internet ads.


The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs, e.g., Windows, Macintosh or Unix.

Plug in

A program application that can easily be installed and used as part of a Web browser. Once installed, plug in applications are recognized by the browser and their function integrated into the main HTML file being presented.

Pop under ad

Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized.

Pop up ad

Ad that appears in a separate window on top of content already on screen. Similar to a daughter window, but without an associated banner.

Pop up transitional

Initiates play in a separate ad window during the transition between content pages. Continues while content is simultaneously being rendered. Depending primarily on line speed, play of a transitional ad may finish before or after content rendering is completed.


A website that often serves as a starting point for a Web user’s session. It typically provides services such as search, directory of websites, news, weather, email, homepage space, stock quotes, sports news, entertainment, telephone directory information, area maps, and chat or message boards.


An entry on a message board, blog, or other chronological online forum.


Aform of online video ad placement where the advertisement is played after the content video plays. See Preroll and Midroll.


Storing advertising or content in a computer's RAM or hard disk memory before it is displayed on the user's screen, rather than at the time that it plays, to reduce delays in rendering. See cache, caching.


A form of online video ad placement where the advertisement is played before the content video plays. See Postroll and Midroll.

Privacy policy

A statement about what information is being collected; how the information being collected is being used; how an individual can access his/her own data collected; how the individual can opt out; and what security measures are being taken by the parties collecting the data.


The practice of tracking information about consumers' interests by monitoring their movements online. This can be done without using any personal information, but simply by analyzing the content, URLs, and other information about a user’s browsing path/click stream.

Process audit

Third party validation of internal control processes associated with measurement. Protocol

A uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. The protocol determines the following: type of error checking to be used, data compression method (if any), how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Internet protocols include TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).

Proxy servers

Intermediaries between end users and websites such as ISPs, commercial online services, and corporate networks. Proxy servers hold the most commonly and recently used content from the Web for users in order to provide quicker access and to increase server security.

Push advertising

Proactive, partial screen, dynamic advertisement which comes in various formats.



A request for information, usually to a search engine.


Rate card

The list of advertising prices and products and packages offered by a media company.


When used in reference to online advertising, one server assigning an ad serving or ad targeting function to another server, often operated by a third company. For instance, a Web publisher's ad management server might re direct to a third party hired by an advertiser to distribute its ads to target customers; and then another re direct to a "rich media" provider might also occur if streaming video were involved before the ad is finally delivered to the consumer. In some cases, the process of re directs can produce latency. See ad serving, latency.


1) Unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category; also called unduplicated audience; 2) the total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.

Real time

Events that happen “live” at a particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time.

Referral link

The referring page, or referral link is a place from which the user clicked to get to the current page. In other words, since a hyperlink connects one URL to another, in clicking on a link the browser moves from the referring URL to the destination URL. Also known as source of a visit.

Referral fees

Fees paid by advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry.


A process for site visitors to enter information about themselves. Sites use registration data to enable or enhance targeting of content and ads. Registration can be required or voluntary.

Repeat visitor

Unique visitor who has accessed a website more than once over a specific time period.

Return visits

The average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.

Rich media

Advertisements with which users can interact (as opposed to solely animation) in a web page format. These advertisements can be used either singularly or in combination with various technologies, including but not limited to sound, video, or Flash, and with programming languages such as Java, Javascript, and DHTML. These Guidelines cover standard Web applications including email, static (e.g. html) and dynamic (e.g. asp) Web pages, and may appear in ad formats such as banners and buttons as well as transitionals and various over the page units such as floating ads, page take overs, and tear backs.

ROI (Return on Investment)

Net profit divided by investment.

RON (Run of Network)

The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventor. The advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.

ROS (Run of Site)

The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub sections.



A subset of a universe whose properties are studied to gain information about that universe.

Sampling frame

The source from which the sample is drawn.


Files that initiate routines like generating Web pages dynamically in response to user input.

SDSL (Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line)



Fees advertisers pay Internet companies to list and/or link their company site or domain name to a specific search word or phrase (includes paid search revenues). Search categories include: Paid listings - text links appear at the top or side of search results for specific keywords. The more a marketer pays, the higher the position it gets. Marketers only pay when a user clicks on the text link. Contextual search - text links appear in an article based on the context of the content, Instead of a user submitted keyword. Payment only occurs when the link is clicked. Paid inclusion - guarantees that a marketer’s URL is indexed by a search engine. The listing is determined by the engine's search algorithms. Site optimization - modifies a site to make it easier for search engines to automatically index the site and hopefully result in better placement in results.

Search engine

An application that helps Web users find information on the Internet. The method for finding this information is usually done by maintaining an index of Web resources that can be queried for the keywords or concepts entered by the user.

Search engine marketing (SEM)

A form of Internet Marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in the Search Engine result pages

Search engine optimization (SEO)

SEO is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via "natural" ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results.

Sell through rate

The percentage of ad inventory sold as opposed to traded or bartered.


A computer which distributes files which are shared across a LAN,WAN or the Internet. Also known as a "host".

Server centric measurement

Audience measurement derived from server logs.

Server initiated ad impression

One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods server initiated and client initiated. Server initiated ad counting uses the publisher’s Web content server for making requests, formatting and re directing content. For organizations using a server initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher's ad server or the Web content server, or later in the process. See client initiated ad impression.

Server pull

A process whereby a user's browser maintains an automated or customized connection or profile with a Web server. The browser usually sets up a unique request that is recorded and stored electronically for future reference. Examples are: requests for the automated delivery of email newsletters, the request for Web content based on a specific search criteria determined by the user, or setting up a personalized Web page that customizes the information delivered to the user based on pre determined self selections.

Server push

A process whereby a server maintains an open connection with a browser after the initial request for a page. Through this open connection the server continues to provide updated pages and content even though the visitor has made no further direct requests for such information.


1) A sequence of Internet activity made by one user at one site. If a user makes no request from a site during a 30 minute period of time, the next content or ad request would then constitute the beginning of a new visit; 2) a series of transactions performed by a user that can be tracked across successive websites. For example, in a single session, a user may start on a publisher's website, click on an advertisement and then go to an advertiser's website and make a purchase. See visit.

Session cookies

These are temporary and are erased when the browser exits at the end of a web surfing session. See cookie.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)

The parent language for HTML.


A browser plug in developed by Macromedia (now part of Adobe) which allows multimedia objects to appear on the Web (animation, audio and video).

Site centric measurement

Audience measurement derived from a website's own server logs.


Customized and interchangeable sets of graphics, which allow Internet users to continually change the look of their desktops or browsers, without changing their settings or functionality. Skins are a type of marketing tool.


A tall, thin online ad unit. The IAB guidelines recommend two sizes of skyscrapers: 120 X 600 and 160 x 600.

Slotting fee

A fee charged to advertisers by media companies to get premium positioning on their site, category exclusivity or some other special treatment. It is similar to slotting allowances charged by retailers.

Smart Card

Identical in size and feel to credit cards, smart cards store information on an integrated microprocessor chip located within the body of the card. These chips hold a variety of information, from stored (monetary) value used for retail and vending machines, to secure information and applications for higher end operations such as medical/healthcare records. The different types of cards being used today are contact, contactless and combination cards. Contact smart cards must be inserted into a smart card reader. These cards have a contact plate on the face which makes an electrical connector for reads and writes to and from the chip when inserted into the reader. Contactless smart cards have an antenna coil, as well as a chip embedded within the card. The internal antenna allows for communication and power with a receiving antenna at the transaction point to transfer information. Close proximity is required for such transactions, which can decrease transaction time while increasing convenience. A combination card functions as both a contact and contactless smart card. Specific to interactive television, the viewer can insert smart cards into the set top box to trigger the box to decrypt contact programming.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

The protocol used to transfer email.

SMS (Short Message Service)

The standard for sending and receiving short (160 character) text messages via mobile handsets.


Software that detects capabilities of the user's browser (looking for such things as Java capabilities, plug ins, screen resolution, and bandwidth).

Social marketing

Marketing tactic that taps into the growth of social networks, encouraging users to adopt and pass along widgets or other content modules created by a brand, or to add a brand to the user’s social circle of friends.

Social network

An online destination that gives users a chance to connect with one or more groups of friends, facilitating sharing of content, news, and information among them. Examples of social networks include Facebook and LinkedIn.


Location on a page of a site in which an ad can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. There can be multiple spaces on a single page.


Term describing unsolicited commercial email.

Spam filter

Software built into email gateways as well as email client applications designed to identify and remove unsolicited commercial messages from incoming email before the end user sees them


A program that automatically fetches Web pages. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines. It is called a spider because it crawls over the Web. Because most Web pages contain links to other pages, a spider can start almost anywhere. As soon as it sees a link to another page, it goes off and fetches it. Large search engines have many spiders working in parallel. See robot.

Splash page

A preliminary page that precedes the user requested page of a website that usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click. Also known as an interstitial. Splash pages are not considered qualified page impressions under current industry guidelines, but they are considered qualified ad impressions.


1) A sponsor is an advertiser who has sponsored an ad and, by doing so, has also helped sponsor or sustain the website itself; 2) an advertiser that has a special relationship with the website and supports a specific feature of a website, such as a writer's column or a collection of articles on a particular subject.


Sponsorship represents custom content and/or experiences created for an advertiser which may or may not include ad units (i.e., display advertising, brand logos, advertorial and pre roll video). Sponsorships fall into several categories: Spotlights are custom built pages incorporating an advertiser’s brand and housing a collection of content usually around a theme; Advergaming can range from an advertiser buying all the ad units around a game or a sponsored by link to creating a custom branded game experience; Content & Section Sponsorship is when an advertiser exclusively sponsors a particular section of the site or email (usually existing content) reskinned with the advertiser’s branding; Sweepstakes & Contests can range from branded sweepstakes on the site to a full fledge branded contest with submissions and judging.

Static ad placement/Static rotation

1) Ads that remain on a Web page for a specified period of time; 2) embedded ads.


A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.


1) Technology that permits continuous audio and video delivered to a computer from a remote website; 2) an Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and video files. The host or source compresses, then "streams" small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received.

Streaming media player

A software program which decompresses audio and/or video files so the user can hear and/or see the video or audio file. Some examples are Real Player., Windows Media and Quick Time Player.


An interstitial format developed by Unicast which is fully pre cached before playing. Specs are 550 x 480 pixels (2/3 of screen), up to 100K file size and up to 20 seconds in length.


Exploring the World Wide Web (Internet).

Source: Interactive Advertising Bureau